Turpentine is the oleoresin obtained from species of Pinus. It is composed of volatile turpentine oils. Terpin is a product obtained by the action of nitric acid on turpentine oil, with general formula CH3(OH)C6H9C(CH3)2OH. Terpin is slightly soluble in water, soluble in ether; melting at 116 C. The hydrate form of terpin is used as an expectorant. Terpineol is a product of dehydrated 1,8-terpin which has lilac odor; boiling at 214 - 224 C, melting point 18 C. Terpineol is used in fragrance compositions in disinfectants, polishes and household products, and also as an intermediate in the production of very high purity alpha-terpineol. Three isomeric terpineols exit, called alpha-, beta-, and gamma-terpineol, differing by the location of the solid bond and hydroxy group. Beta form does not exit in nature.
Molecular formula: C10H18O
Appearance: Colorless liquid with an odor of lilac